衢州| 金坛| 叶城| 类乌齐| 海伦| 泰安| 建平| 单县| 福泉| 宁明| 宁海| 屯昌| 顺德| 榕江| 南部| 塔城| 青州| 木里| 洱源| 安塞| 牟平| 科尔沁左翼中旗| 兴山| 青岛| 洛阳| 修武| 黄冈| 乌恰| 志丹| 介休| 疏勒| 乌拉特中旗| 石景山| 科尔沁右翼中旗| 浑源| 勐海| 蓬莱| 鹿泉| 龙南| 拉萨| 会昌| 巴林左旗| 大龙山镇| 虎林| 安县| 綦江| 察隅| 天峨| 广德| 松滋| 常宁| 洪雅| 连江| 思茅| 郓城| 东营| 焦作| 惠水| 临邑| 晋州| 绩溪| 杜集| 察哈尔右翼中旗| 武山| 商洛| 屏南| 广南| 大足| 荥阳| 南芬| 砚山| 靖安| 易门| 杭锦后旗| 头屯河| 辉南| 武川| 偃师| 毕节| 慈利| 德令哈| 嘉义县| 太谷| 兴山| 五常| 通州| 渑池| 龙陵| 海原| 祥云| 通河| 美姑| 安徽| 勉县| 阜新市| 衡阳县| 茶陵| 尚义| 八宿| 内丘| 深圳| 天安门| 额尔古纳| 平南| 汝州| 沙湾| 五华| 浦城| 平顺| 克拉玛依| 莲花| 监利| 凤城| 拜泉| 平江| 辉县| 宣威| 南溪| 左贡| 德庆| 天水| 班戈| 喀什| 韶山| 铜山| 叶城| 镇巴| 海兴| 秦安| 台湾| 襄汾| 文昌| 武定| 镇坪| 台东| 辉县| 溆浦| 南澳| 从江| 文登| 金堂| 达日| 牟定| 英德| 桦南| 沙湾| 繁昌| 南海镇| 德钦| 且末| 松江| 泗水| 夏津| 运城| 张家界| 霸州| 茶陵| 拜城| 易门| 武邑| 卢氏| 白河| 松阳| 大名| 太仓| 江苏| 溆浦| 黄陂| 通渭| 旬邑| 洪洞| 青川| 扎兰屯| 南和| 武夷山| 澳门| 定西| 冠县| 高邑| 邗江| 中卫| 石景山| 遂宁| 麦积| 洱源| 乌当| 靖江| 召陵| 望都| 九江市| 鞍山| 河南| 霞浦| 吉首| 天长| 鱼台| 大同区| 农安| 宁夏| 蒲县| 萍乡| 江永| 即墨| 科尔沁左翼中旗| 察布查尔| 阜康| 大荔| 西畴| 容城| 花溪| 张家界| 孝义| 蕉岭| 宜良| 科尔沁右翼中旗| 琼海| 本溪市| 庆安| 营山| 呼伦贝尔| 易县| 房县| 黄埔| 平塘| 衢州| 西充| 苏家屯| 湘潭县| 台安| 桃江| 林州| 凤冈| 巴马| 泰兴| 惠农| 武安| 灵山| 新疆| 阜阳| 太湖| 东辽| 南部| 桃源| 雅江| 鞍山| 鄂温克族自治旗| 永泰| 定陶| 东明| 临汾| 龙凤| 南沙岛| 商水| 西昌| 土默特左旗| 白沙| 遂昌| 顺平| 玉田| 中江| 沙洋| 阜阳| 大名|

当极致匠心遇上利比里亚风情 西班牙之旅(下)

2019-08-20 16:00 来源:寻医问药

  当极致匠心遇上利比里亚风情 西班牙之旅(下)

  Eightetiquettevolunteersposeforaphotoatthemediacenterforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,000volunteershavebeenmobilizedtoofferservicesforthesummit,fromassistingwithguestsarrivalanddeparture,translation,andmediarequests,totheoperationofcityfunctionssuchastransportation,telecommunication,andbanks.(Xinhua/LiZiheng),2008showsJiangShifa(R)andhiswifeLianShifangasvolunteersfortheBeijing2008OlympicGamesSailingeventinQingdao;LowerphototakenonJune5,2018showsthecoupleasvolunteersfortheShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)QingdaoSummit,inQingdao,eastChina,74yearsoldandhiswife,72yearsold,ittenyearsaftertheyservedasvolunteersfortheBeijing2008OlympicGamesSailingeventinQingdao.(Photo/Xinhua)JiangShifa(R)andhiswifeLianShifang,volunteersfortheShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)QingdaoSummit,guideatouristinWendengRoadinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,74yearsoldandhiswife,72yearsold,ittenyearsaftertheyservedasvolunteersfortheBeijing2008OlympicGamesSailingeventinQingdao.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)JiangShifa(R)andhiswifeLianShifang,volunteersfortheShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)QingdaoSummit,giveouthandbooksatMingxialuCommunityinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,74yearsoldandhiswife,72yearsold,ittenyearsaftertheyservedasvolunteersfortheBeijing2008OlympicGamesSailingeventinQingdao.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)JiangShifa(R)andhiswifeLianShifang,volunteersfortheShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)QingdaoSummit,gatheratMingxialuCommunityfortraininginQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,74yearsoldandhiswife,72yearsold,ittenyearsaftertheyservedasvolunteersfortheBeijing2008OlympicGamesSailingeventinQingdao.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)JiangShifa(3rdR)andhiswifeLianShifang(2ndR),volunteersfortheShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)QingdaoSummit,guidepassengersatabusstopinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,74yearsoldandhiswife,72yearsold,ittenyearsaftertheyservedasvolunteersfortheBeijing2008OlympicGamesSailingeventinQingdao.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)EtiquetteteacherLuMin(1stR)instructsvolunteersforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,000volunteershavebeenmobilizedtoofferservicesforthesummit,fromassistingwithguestsarrivalanddeparture,translation,andmediarequests,totheoperationofcityfunctionssuchastransportation,telecommunication,andbanks.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)Eightetiquettevolunteersforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitpracticeinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,000volunteershavebeenmobilizedtoofferservicesforthesummit,fromassistingwithguestsarrivalanddeparture,translation,andmediarequests,totheoperationofcityfunctionssuchastransportation,telecommunication,andbanks.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)AstaffmemberrepairsaculturalrelicatarestorationhospitalinthePalaceMuseuminBeijing,June9,sCulturalandNaturalHeritageDay,thefirstbatchof40peoplewatcheddoctorsrepairingpiecesfromsomeofthemuseumscollections,includingpiecesofcalligraphy,paintings,bronzewareandclocks,,,000squaremetersandhasthenationsmost-advancedrestorationstudios.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)ShanJixiang(C),thecuratorofthePalaceMuseum,poseswithvolunteersattheopeningofitsrestorationhospitaltothepublicinBeijing,June9,sCulturalandNaturalHeritageDay,thefirstbatchof40peoplewatcheddoctorsrepairingpiecesfromsomeofthemuseumscollections,includingpiecesofcalligraphy,paintings,bronzewareandclocks,,,000squaremetersandhasthenationsmost-advancedrestorationstudios.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)StaffmembersrepairculturalrelicsatarestorationhospitalinthePalaceMuseuminBeijing,June9,sCulturalandNaturalHeritageDay,thefirstbatchof40peoplewatcheddoctorsrepairingpiecesfromsomeofthemuseumscollections,includingpiecesofcalligraphy,paintings,bronzewareandclocks,,,000squaremetersandhasthenationsmost-advancedrestorationstudios.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)AvolunteertalkstovisitorsaboutculturalrelicsrestorationatahospitalinthePalaceMuseuminBeijing,June9,sCulturalandNaturalHeritageDay,thefirstbatchof40peoplewatcheddoctorsrepairingpiecesfromsomeofthemuseumscollections,includingpiecesofcalligraphy,paintings,bronzewareandclocks,,,000squaremetersandhasthenationsmost-advancedrestorationstudios.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)AstaffmemberrepairsaculturalrelicatarestorationhospitalinthePalaceMuseuminBeijing,June9,sCulturalandNaturalHeritageDay,thefirstbatchof40peoplewatcheddoctorsrepairingpiecesfromsomeofthemuseumscollections,includingpiecesofcalligraphy,paintings,bronzewareandclocks,,,000squaremetersandhasthenationsmost-advancedrestorationstudios.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)ShanJixiang,thecuratorofthePalaceMuseum,meetswithvisitorstoarestorationhospitalinthePalaceMuseuminBeijing,June9,sCulturalandNaturalHeritageDay,thefirstbatchof40peoplewatcheddoctorsrepairingpiecesfromsomeofthemuseumscollections,includingpiecesofcalligraphy,paintings,bronzewareandclocks,,,000squaremetersandhasthenationsmost-advancedrestorationstudios.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)ShanJixiang,thecuratorofthePalaceMuseum,meetswithvisitorstoarestorationhospitalinthePalaceMuseuminBeijing,June9,sCulturalandNaturalHeritageDay,thefirstbatchof40peoplewatcheddoctorsrepairingpiecesfromsomeofthemuseumscollections,includingpiecesofcalligraphy,paintings,bronzewareandclocks,,,000squaremetersandhasthenationsmost-advancedrestorationstudios.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuGuanguan)

FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)

  FolkartistZhangBinmakesdoughfigurinesinanintangibleculturalheritagefairinShenyang,capitalofnortheastChinasLiaoningProvince,June9,ritageDayonSaturday.(Xinhua/YaoJianfeng)PeoplevisitChineseculturalheritageartexhibitioninGuangzhou,southChinasGuangdongProvince,June9,ritageDayonSaturday.(Xinhua/LuHanxin)ApersonvisitsChineseculturalheritageartexhibitioninGuangzhou,southChinasGuangdongProvince,June9,ritageDayonSaturday.(Xinhua/LuHanxin)InkstoneamateurscompeteinaninkstonecarvingcontestinWuyuan,eastChinasJiangxiProvince,June9,ritageDayonSaturday.(Xinhua/SongZhenping)AchildgetshissugarpaintinginanintangibleculturalheritagefairinShenyang,capitalofnortheastChinasLiaoningProvince,June9,ritageDayonSaturday.(Xinhua/YaoJianfeng)AfolkartistcommunicateswithonlineaudienceinnorthChinasTianjinMunicipality,June9,ritageDayonSaturday.(Xinhua/LiRan)AcollectionofvintagevehiclesisondisplayattheOldVehiclesCulturalMuseuminTaiyuanCity,ShanxiProvince,June7,,motorcycles,andtractorsfrommorethantencountries,with90percentofthemstillabletostart.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/WuJunjie)AcollectionofvintagevehiclesisondisplayattheOldVehiclesCulturalMuseuminTaiyuanCity,ShanxiProvince,June7,,motorcycles,andtractorsfrommorethantencountries,with90percentofthemstillabletostart.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/WuJunjie)AcollectionofvintagevehiclesisondisplayattheOldVehiclesCulturalMuseuminTaiyuanCity,ShanxiProvince,June7,,motorcycles,andtractorsfrommorethantencountries,with90percentofthemstillabletostart.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/WuJunjie)AcollectionofvintagevehiclesisondisplayattheOldVehiclesCulturalMuseuminTaiyuanCity,ShanxiProvince,June7,,motorcycles,andtractorsfrommorethantencountries,with90percentofthemstillabletostart.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/WuJunjie)AcollectionofvintagevehiclesisondisplayattheOldVehiclesCulturalMuseuminTaiyuanCity,ShanxiProvince,June7,,motorcycles,andtractorsfrommorethantencountries,with90percentofthemstillabletostart.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/WuJunjie)

  ContestantsperformintheChinaBodybuildingChampionshipsinTianjin,June7,,thechampions(Photo:ChinaNewsService/TongYu)ContestantsperformintheChinaBodybuildingChampionshipsinTianjin,June7,,thechampions(Photo:ChinaNewsService/TongYu)ContestantsperformintheChinaBodybuildingChampionshipsinTianjin,June7,,thechampions(Photo:ChinaNewsService/TongYu)ContestantsperformintheChinaBodybuildingChampionshipsinTianjin,June7,,thechampions(Photo:ChinaNewsService/TongYu)Ajournalistasksforinformationatthemediacenterforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganizationSummitinQingdao,Shandongprovince,onFriday.[PhotobyFengYongbin/ChinaDaily]LiGuangda,avolunteeratthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganizationSummit,saidhehasreceivedmanythumbs-upfromforeignreportersforhisprofessionalandfriendlyassistancesincehebeganservingattheinformationdeskofthesummitsmediacenter."It,,"saidt,000studentvolunteersrecruitedfrom10universitiesinthecoastalcity,,another18,000volunte,theyarenicknamed"littleseasplashes".Theyhavebeenmobilizedtooffervariousservicesforthesummit,suchasassistancetoguestswitharrivalanddeparture,ionSummitinQingdao,Shandongprovince,onFriday.[PhotobyFengYongbin/ChinaDaily]Li,anundergraduatemajoringinEnglish,,000studentsappliedtobecomevolunteersforthesummit,accordingtothemeetingsorganizingcommittee."Theenthusiasmfromstudentsisbeyondourexpectations,"saidSunJian,whoworksforthecommitteesworkinggroupofvolunteers."Wevechosentheoneswithbetterexpertisethatisparticularlyhelpfulforthesummit,suchasstudentsmajoringinforeignlanguagesandcomputers."Eachvolunteerhasreceivedabout40hoursoftrainingbeforethesummit,hesaid."Besideslessonsonetiquette,weveinvitedexpertsfromtheMinistryofForeignAffairstogivethevolunteerslecturesonhowtheSCOworksandthetraditionsofthecountriesparticipatinginthesummit."LihasbeenaboutQingdao,becausetheyaretheonesthereportersgotofirstiftheyhavequestions,ionSummitinQingdao,Shandongprovince,onFriday.[PhotobyFengYongbin/ChinaDaily]"Itsanhonortobepartofsuchanimportantevent,"headded."WejustwanttoleavetheguestsandreporterswithagoodimpressionofQingdaoandtheChinesepeople."Moreimportant,Ialsofindjoyinmeetingpeoplefromdifferentcountries,whichhasbroadenedmyviews,",ateacherfromOceanUniversityofChinaandavolunteerorganizer,saiditsnotaneasyjobtomaintainagoodpostureandgreetpeoplewithasmilealldaylong,aswellasofferusefulandprofessionalassistance."Thestudentstoldmethattheyenjoytheworkbecausetheygenuinelywanttoofferthebestservice,"shesaid."Improudofthem."

ContestantsperformintheChinaBodybuildingChampionshipsinTianjin,June7,,thechampions(Photo:ChinaNewsService/TongYu)ContestantsperformintheChinaBodybuildingChampionshipsinTianjin,June7,,thechampions(Photo:ChinaNewsService/TongYu)ContestantsperformintheChinaBodybuildingChampionshipsinTianjin,June7,,thechampions(Photo:ChinaNewsService/TongYu)ContestantsperformintheChinaBodybuildingChampionshipsinTianjin,June7,,thechampions(Photo:ChinaNewsService/TongYu)

  AresidentmakesZongzi,apyramid-shapeddumplingmadeofglutinousricewrappedinbambooorreedleaves,togreettheupcomingDragonBoatFestivalinZhangjiajieCity,centralChinasHunanProvince,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuYongbing)PeoplepickleavestomakeZongzi,apyramid-shapeddumplingmadeofglutinousricewrappedinbambooorreedleaves,togreettheupcomingDragonBoatFestivalinforestofZhangjiajieCity,centralChinasHunanProvince,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuYongbing)AwomancleansleavesformakingZongzi,apyramid-shapeddumplingmadeofglutinousricewrappedinbambooorreedleaves,togreettheupcomingDragonBoatFestivalinarivuletofZhangjiajieCity,centralChinasHunanProvince,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuYongbing)Volunteersmakezongzi,apyramid-shapeddumplingmadeofglutinousricewrappedinbambooorreedleaves,fortheelderlypersonsofnofamilytocelebratetheDuanwuFestivalatacommunityinZhenjiangCity,eastChinasJiangsuProvince,June11,2018.(Xinhua/ShiYucheng)

  TheGroupofSeven(G7)summit,whichkickedoffhereonFriday,isexpectedtobeatoughme,theworldsmostpowerfulindustrializedcountriesincludingCanada,France,Germany,Italy,Britain,JapanandtheUnitedStates,meeteveryyeartodiscusscollaborationonissueslikeworldeconomy,climatechange,,Quebec,uelMacrononissuesconcerningtradeandtheDemocraticPeoplesRepublicofKorea(DPRK),ssummitincludeincreasingin,theconfrontationoverWashingtonsunilateraldecisiontoimposemetaltariffsonimportsfromtheEuropeanUnion(EU)srejectionoftheglobalclimateaccordandIrannucleardealhavealsodividedtheG7."Itappearstobeoneagains,"saidPerrinBeatty,presidentandchiefexecutiveofficerofthe200,000-memberCanadianChamberofCommerce,slargestbusinessassociationisatanearbymediacenterlookingforsignsastowhetherCanada,theUnitedKingdom,France,Germany,ItalyandJapan--andtheEuropeanUnion(EU)asaparticipant--canconvincetheUnitedStatestorethinkitsanti-tradestrategy."Whatwehaveisapresidentwhohasunderminedthetrustoftheothersixleadersaroundthetable,andthatwillmakeitmuchmoredifficulttohaveacommonfrontonotherissuesaswell,"saidBeatty,,CanadafollowedtheEUsthattargetthehomestatesofprominentRepublicanmembersofCongress,suchasfruitjamsfromWisconsin--thehomestateofHouseSpeakerPaulRyan--andwhiskiesfromKentucky,--thehomestateofSenateMajorityLeaderMitchMcConnell."Wearehurtandwereinsulted,"saidCanadianFohwouldcomeintoeffectonJuly1iftheTrumpadministrationdidntwithdrawitsimporttaxes--to",andtryingtofind,whereverpossible,aCanadianorothersuppliertoprovidetheproducts."However,hesaidCanadasbusinesscommunityhasa"realconcern"withhowTrumpisattackingwhatshouldbethegoalofhaving"freeandopen"trade."Weveseenasuccessionofm,economies,"saidBeatty."Yetheseemsoblivioustotheconsequences."ncreasedcostsfornewspaperpublishersandnowimperilsthefateoflocalpapersacrosstheUnitedStates,ssoftwoodlumberindustry,butthathasresultedindrivingupthecostofhousingandfurnitureintheUnitedStatesandmakingAmericanfurnituremanufacturerslesscompetitive,sautoindustry,whichexportsabout80percentofthevehiclesitmanufacturestotheUnitedStates,orCanadasdairyindustry,basedonthepresidentsrecenttweetthat"CanadahastreatedourAgriculturalbusinessandFarmersverypoorlyforaverylongperiodoftime."AlloftheseactionsfurthererodeanyhopethattheNorthAmericanFreeTradeAgreement,currentlyunderrenegotiationbytheUnitedStates,CanadaandMexico,willsurvive,accordingtoBeatty."PresidentTrumphasmadeitclearthatheislessinterestedinhavinganagreementwhentheUnitedStateswinsthaninhavingonewhereeveryoneloses,"hesaid.",whetheryouareacustomerorasupplier,youwanttoensurethatbothhaveafairdealthatismutuallybeneficialandyouneverwantasituationwheresomeonefeelsvictimized.""YetthisseemstobePresidentTrumpfotherslose,"hewaselectedtotheHouseofCommonsasaMemberofParliamentforthethen-ProgressiveConservativePartyattheageof22."Ihaveneverseenaninstancelikethiswheredoingtradewitheachotheri,,diplomatically,culturallyandeconomicallythanwithanyothercountryintheworld,"JustinTrudeau,FrenchPresidentMacronandtheEUontradeissues,sayingheislookingforwardto"straighteningoutunfairTradeDeals",theleadershopetosignajoiloftensionbetweentheUnitedStatesanditsalliesindecades,fromtradetotheIrandealtoNAFTA,,Trumptweetedthathewas"gettingreadytogototheG-7inCanadatofightforourcountryonTrade."ButotherG7leaderswerepreparingforanAmericamorealonethaneverbefore,andnowTrumpfacestheveryrealriskofalliesteamingupagainsthim,thearticlesaid."TheAmericanpresidentmaynotmindbeingisolated,butneitherdowemindsigninga6countryagreementifneedbe,"MacrontweetedlateronThursday."UnderTrump,AmericafirstreallyisturningouttobeAmericaAlone,"theNewYorkersG7summit,,theFrenchpresidentsofficesaidFriday.VolunteerscleanwasteonbeachinDongshanCounty,southeastChinasFujianProvince,,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/SongWeiwei)VolunteersfreefriesinSanya,southChinasHainanProvince,June6,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/ChenWenwu)MembersofChinasAntarcticexpeditionputamicroplasticcollectorintothesea,,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/BaiGuolong)CleanersclearthefloatingwasteinthefishbreedingraftsinHuangqiTownshipofLianjiangCounty,southeastChinasFujianProvince,June6,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)ChinasmannedsubmersibleJiaolongispreparedtodiveintheYapTrenchinthewestPacific,June13,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/LiuShiping)PearlcultivatorstransfershellsatapearlcultivationfarminBeihaiCity,southChinasGuangxiZhuangAutonomousRegion,,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/ZhangAilin)AlittlegirlstaysatacampinQingdaoHaichangPolarOceanParkinQingdao,acoastalcityineastChinasShandongProvince,May19,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)AseaweedharvestboatsailsataseaweedfarminSanshaTownshipinXiapuCounty,southeastChinasFujianProvince,,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/JiangKehong),2018showsthesceneryofXinyingmangrovenationalwetlandparkinsouthChina,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/JiangEnyu)

  VolunteersworkatthepresscenteroftheShanghaiCooperationOrganizationQingdaoSummitinQingdaoCity,EastChina’sShandongProvince,June7,alistsfromhomeandabroadatthepresscenter.(Photo/VCG)VolunteersworkatthepresscenteroftheShanghaiCooperationOrganizationQingdaoSummitinQingdaoCity,EastChina’sShandongProvince,June7,alistsfromhomeandabroadatthepresscenter.(Photo/VCG)VolunteersworkatthepresscenteroftheShanghaiCooperationOrganizationQingdaoSummitinQingdaoCity,EastChina’sShandongProvince,June7,alistsfromhomeandabroadatthepresscenter.(Photo/VCG)VolunteersworkatthepresscenteroftheShanghaiCooperationOrganizationQingdaoSummitinQingdaoCity,EastChina’sShandongProvince,June7,alistsfromhomeandabroadatthepresscenter.(Photo/VCG)VolunteersworkatthepresscenteroftheShanghaiCooperationOrganizationQingdaoSummitinQingdaoCity,EastChina’sShandongProvince,June7,alistsfromhomeandabroadatthepresscenter.(Photo/VCG)

  AnaerialviewofacolorfulsaltlakeinYuncheng,ShanxiProvince,June6,,thesaltlake,knownasChinas"DeadSea",displaysdifferentcolorsasaresultofmicroorganismsinthewater.(Photo/IC)AnaerialviewofacolorfulsaltlakeinYuncheng,ShanxiProvince,June6,,thesaltlake,knownasChinas"DeadSea",displaysdifferentcolorsasaresultofmicroorganismsinthewater.(Photo/IC)AnaerialviewofacolorfulsaltlakeinYuncheng,ShanxiProvince,June6,,thesaltlake,knownasChinas"DeadSea",displaysdifferentcolorsasaresultofmicroorganismsinthewater.(Photo/IC)TheaerialphotoseriesofthecountrysideinSWChinasChongqingLiangpingdistrictwinsthefirstprizeatthe2018NationalYangtzeRiverPhotoCompetitionheldbytheOfficeoftheCentralCyberspaceAffairsCommission,theMinistryofEcologyandEnvironmentand1,,395participantsfromallwalksoflifeandtheirworksreflectedthenaturalbeautyandpeopleslifealongtheriver.(Photo/ChinaDaily)TheaerialphotoseriesofthecountrysideinSWChinasChongqingLiangpingdistrictwinsthefirstprizeatthe2018NationalYangtzeRiverPhotoCompetitionheldbytheOfficeoftheCentralCyberspaceAffairsCommission,theMinistryofEcologyandEnvironmentand1,,395participantsfromallwalksoflifeandtheirworksreflectedthenaturalbeautyandpeopleslifealongtheriver.(Photo/ChinaDaily)TheaerialphotoseriesofthecountrysideinSWChinasChongqingLiangpingdistrictwinsthefirstprizeatthe2018NationalYangtzeRiverPhotoCompetitionheldbytheOfficeoftheCentralCyberspaceAffairsCommission,theMinistryofEcologyandEnvironmentand1,,395participantsfromallwalksoflifeandtheirworksreflectedthenaturalbeautyandpeopleslifealongtheriver.(Photo/ChinaDaily)TheaerialphotoseriesofthecountrysideinSWChinasChongqingLiangpingdistrictwinsthefirstprizeatthe2018NationalYangtzeRiverPhotoCompetitionheldbytheOfficeoftheCentralCyberspaceAffairsCommission,theMinistryofEcologyandEnvironmentand1,,395participantsfromallwalksoflifeandtheirworksreflectedthenaturalbeautyandpeopleslifealongtheriver.(Photo/ChinaDaily)

  TwoseniorWhiteHouseofficialsonSundayblastedCanadianPrimeMinisterJustinTrudeauoverhisearlierstatementsduringthejustconcludedGroupofSeven(G7)mmunique;however,"insulting"andCanada"willnotbepushedaround.""basedonJustinsfalsestatementsathisnewsconference,,workersandcompanies."SayingTrudeauis"dishonestweak,"healsothreatened"!"Alsoinresponse,LarryKudlow,directoroftheWhiteHousesNationalEconomicCouncil,saidonSundayinaninterviewwithCNNthatTrudeaubetrayedTrumpwith"polarizing"sstatementriskedmakingTrumplookweakbeforehismeetingwithKimJongUn,thetopleaderoftheDemocraticPeoplesRepublicofKorea(DPRK)inSingapore."Hereallykindofstabbedusintheback,"hesaid,addingTrump"isnotgoingtoletaCanadianprimeministerpushhimaroundontheeveofthis...heisnotgoingtopermitanyshowofweaknessonthetriptonegotiatewithNorthKorea."SayingTrudeausstatementsare"amateurish"and"sophomoric"only"fordomesticconsumption,"KudlowsaiditwasTrudeausremarksthathadpromptedTrumptopulloutofthejointcommunique.","Kudlowsaid."Don,afterthedealshadbeenmade."TrumpstradeadviserPeterNavarroalsolashedoutonSundayatTrudeausstatements,sayingtheyrepresent"badfaith.""Thereisaspecialplaceinhellfoswhatbad-faithJustinTrudeaudidwiththatstuntpressconference,thatswhatweak,dishonestJustinTrudeaudid,"Navarrotold"FoxNewsSunday."Trump",biggerthings,onhisplateinSingapore....,"sdecisiontowithdrawhissupportforthecommuniquéhasdrawnsharpcriticismfromGermanyonSunday."Inamatterofseconds,youcandestroytrustwith280Twittercharacters,"GermanForeignMinisterHeikoMaassaidwhenaskedaboutTrumpsdecision."WehaveseenthiswiththeclimateagreementortheIrandeal."CanadasForeignMinisterChrystiaFreelandspokeagainsttheUnitedStatesoveritstariffsonsteelandaluminumonFridayduringtheGroupofSeven(G7)summitinCharlevoix,Quebec."Canadawillnotchangeitsmindwhenitcomestotheillegalandabsolutelyunjustifiedapplicationoftariffsonsteelandaluminum,notonlycomingfromCanada,butonthesteelandaluminumsoldbyalltheG7allieswhoareassembledhere,totheUnitedStates,"eration,Freelandsaid:"Weareverycle,,wearepartofthenationaldefensebaseoftheUnitedStates.""CanadahasalreadyraisedcasesattheWTOandatNAFTA,andwewillretaliate,"shesaid."Butwesaythatwithgreatsadness."Lastweek,Canadahit(),aninternationaltradeexpertattheUniversityofBritishColumbiainVancouver,saidFreelandscommentsweremeaningful."IthinksheisoutliningCanadasactualpositionandisoutliningactualstepsthathavebeentakenandarebeingtaken,",theUnitedStates,France,Germany,Italy,JapanandCanada.

  TwoseniorWhiteHouseofficialsonSundayblastedCanadianPrimeMinisterJustinTrudeauoverhisearlierstatementsduringthejustconcludedGroupofSeven(G7)mmunique;however,"insulting"andCanada"willnotbepushedaround.""basedonJustinsfalsestatementsathisnewsconference,,workersandcompanies."SayingTrudeauis"dishonestweak,"healsothreatened"!"Alsoinresponse,LarryKudlow,directoroftheWhiteHousesNationalEconomicCouncil,saidonSundayinaninterviewwithCNNthatTrudeaubetrayedTrumpwith"polarizing"sstatementriskedmakingTrumplookweakbeforehismeetingwithKimJongUn,thetopleaderoftheDemocraticPeoplesRepublicofKorea(DPRK)inSingapore."Hereallykindofstabbedusintheback,"hesaid,addingTrump"isnotgoingtoletaCanadianprimeministerpushhimaroundontheeveofthis...heisnotgoingtopermitanyshowofweaknessonthetriptonegotiatewithNorthKorea."SayingTrudeausstatementsare"amateurish"and"sophomoric"only"fordomesticconsumption,"KudlowsaiditwasTrudeausremarksthathadpromptedTrumptopulloutofthejointcommunique.","Kudlowsaid."Don,afterthedealshadbeenmade."TrumpstradeadviserPeterNavarroalsolashedoutonSundayatTrudeausstatements,sayingtheyrepresent"badfaith.""Thereisaspecialplaceinhellfoswhatbad-faithJustinTrudeaudidwiththatstuntpressconference,thatswhatweak,dishonestJustinTrudeaudid,"Navarrotold"FoxNewsSunday."Trump",biggerthings,onhisplateinSingapore....,"sdecisiontowithdrawhissupportforthecommuniquéhasdrawnsharpcriticismfromGermanyonSunday."Inamatterofseconds,youcandestroytrustwith280Twittercharacters,"GermanForeignMinisterHeikoMaassaidwhenaskedaboutTrumpsdecision."WehaveseenthiswiththeclimateagreementortheIrandeal."CanadasForeignMinisterChrystiaFreelandspokeagainsttheUnitedStatesoveritstariffsonsteelandaluminumonFridayduringtheGroupofSeven(G7)summitinCharlevoix,Quebec."Canadawillnotchangeitsmindwhenitcomestotheillegalandabsolutelyunjustifiedapplicationoftariffsonsteelandaluminum,notonlycomingfromCanada,butonthesteelandaluminumsoldbyalltheG7allieswhoareassembledhere,totheUnitedStates,"eration,Freelandsaid:"Weareverycle,,wearepartofthenationaldefensebaseoftheUnitedStates.""CanadahasalreadyraisedcasesattheWTOandatNAFTA,andwewillretaliate,"shesaid."Butwesaythatwithgreatsadness."Lastweek,Canadahit(),aninternationaltradeexpertattheUniversityofBritishColumbiainVancouver,saidFreelandscommentsweremeaningful."IthinksheisoutliningCanadasactualpositionandisoutliningactualstepsthathavebeentakenandarebeingtaken,",theUnitedStates,France,Germany,Italy,JapanandCanada.

  TouristsdressedinKoreanethnicgarbposeinfrontoftheYaluRiverinDandong,Liaoningprovince,onMay1.(YUHAIYANG/FORCHINADAILY)KimJong-unsvisitreaffirmedDPRKslong-standingfriendshipwithChinaOnMarch25,ZhouLinqingrodethetrainfromDandong,Liaoningprovince,toPyongyang,capitaloftheDemocraticPeople,whichisclearlyvisibleacrosstheYaluRiver,,whichtakesaboutsevenhours,isusuallysmoothanduntroubled,butonthisoccasionZhouoralongtimebeforemovingon,,helearnedthatthetrainhadbeenstoppedtomakewayforaspecialtraincarryingKimJong-un,whowasheadingtoBeijingfortalkswithPresidentXiJinpingaspartoftheDPRKtopleader,havingarrivedinSingaporeon,Liaoningprovince,onMay1.(YUHAIYANG/FORCHINADAILY)BackinPyongyang,ZhouandhisbusinesspartnersfromtheDPRKwatchedalengthyTVnewsreportaboutKimshistoricmeetingwithXi,includingfootageofahandshakebetweenthesmilingleadersthatquicklywentviralonsocialmedia."IcloselymonitortheinternationalsituationregardingtheDPRKbecausechangescaninstantlyanddirectlyaffectcross-bordertrade,,"the54-year-oldsaid."Dontgetmewrong-eenXiandKimwasdefinitelyworthcelebrating,re,"hesaid,,ZhouglancedatabusinesswomanfromtheDPRKwhowastalkingtooneofhisemployeesaboutplacingordersforawiderangeofitems."Itseemslikesheneedseverything,"omersinDandong,Liaoningprovince,onMay1.(YUHAIYANG/FORCHINADAILY)GaoliStreetisoneofthemostpopularplacesinDandongfosdesk,smallChineseandDPRKnationaldeskflagsflankacollectionofbooksaboutKimIl-sung,theDPRKsfounderwhowasKimJongun,,whicharewritteninChinese,carefullytogleanhintsthatwouldhelphimdecodethemindsetofthecountry-destinationwithplentyofbusinesspotential."Peopleareusuallymystified,buttheydon,itisuniqueinmanyways,suchasitspoliticalsystemandthewaybusinessesarerun,butaslongasyoureallyunderstandhowthingsworkthere,itsjustbusinessasusual,"saidZhou,,Liaoningprovince,whichsellsgoodsfromtheDemocraticPeoplesbusinesshasdeclinedasaresultofsanctionsimposedontheDPRKbytheUNlastyear.(YANGQING/XINHUA)SanctionsbiteInAugustandSeptember,theUNSecurityCouncilimposedtwosetsofsanctionsontheDPRK,,iron,leadandseafood,,Ksminingsector,Zhouhasbeenaffected."tions,",threemonthsafterthesanctionswereimposed,thetradevolumebetweenChinaandtheDPRKwas$310million,ayear-on-yeardeclineof50percent,auseitseconomyisheavilyinfluencedbytheinternationalsi,,2015,thedayitopenedforbusiness.(PANYULONG/XINHUA)ThegoodnewsforZhouisthatDPRKresidentsrelyheavilyonsmallbusinessestoprovidethemwithallkindsofgoods,butthecountrysunstableelectricitysupplymeansnonelectricalitemsareespeciallypopular."Thefactisthatdemandisrisingandunstoppable,",roadandriverroutesdirectlyconnectedwithSinuiju,acityintheDPRKclosetotheborder,morethan70percentofChinastradewiththecountrypassesthroughDandong,heinternationalsituationinvolvingtheDPRK,and,moreimportant,,whichopenedin1943andconnectsDandongandSinuiju,hasfallensharplysinceChinaimplementedtheUNsanctions,accordingtoZhang,aveterancross-borderbusinessmanwhodeclinedtogivehisfullname."ForpeopleinDandong,themostobviouschangesarethattherearenoyoungwomenfromtheDPRKservingatjointventurerestaurantsthatarefamousforauthenticDPRKcuisine,andseafoodfromtheDPRKisnolongeravailableondinnertables,"(FREDDUFOUR/FORCHINADAILY)SpeculationZhangaddedthatlocalpeoplehavenotreactedtospeculationinsomepartsofChinathatDandongcouldbeafutureShenzhen-thecityinGuangdongprovincethatwasthecountryelopmentduringameetingintheDPRKonApril20."e,andthestatusofthenewbridgeacrosstherivertheywontbelieveeverythingtheyreadabouttheDPRK,"hesaid,(WENSHAN/FORCHINADAILY)BridgingthegapToboostcross-bordertrade,constructionofanewcrossing,officiallycalledtheNewChina-DPRKFriendshipBridge,,thenewbridge-about12kmdownstreamfromtheold940-meter-longconstruction-hasntbeenputintousebecauseconstructionofaroadtoconnectitwithSinuijuhasntstartedyet."Atthemoment,thenewbridgeonlyfunctionsasaholderforneonlights;istalkabouttheopening-upoftheDPRK;whenwilltrucksbeabletousethisexpensivebridge"Zhangsaid."SomeofmyfriendsbelievethehypeandhaveevenaskedmehowtheycanbuypropertyinSinuiju-theyaredeadlyserious."AftertheUNimposedthelatestsanctions,YaoXing,28,amemberoftheyoungergenerationofcross-borderbusinesspeopleinDandong,shiftedhisfocusfromimportingdieseltotakingtouriststotheDPRK."WeveseenarisingnumberofyoungChineseshowinganinterestinvisitingthecountrybecausetheyhavehe,businessisbooming,",Yaoatingthecountryisnotasdifficultastheyhadassumedandthatitcouldbefuntotakeatrip."Therisingdemandmeanswehaveto,manypeopleviewtheonce-a-dayinternationaltraintotheDPRKasanattractioninitsownright,althoughthe220-kilometerjourneycantakeuptosevenhoursbecauseofsecuritychecks,",thebusinessman,saidthatgiventhesanctionsimposedovertheyears,"Ofcourse,likeeveryoneelseinDandong,Iwillcloselyfollowthemeetingbetween,IalsowanttoseetheUNtakeitshandsoffthesanctionsbutton,whichwouldhaveanimmediate,beneficialeffectonmybusiness,"hesaid.AresidentmakesZongzi,apyramid-shapeddumplingmadeofglutinousricewrappedinbambooorreedleaves,togreettheupcomingDragonBoatFestivalinZhangjiajieCity,centralChinasHunanProvince,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuYongbing)PeoplepickleavestomakeZongzi,apyramid-shapeddumplingmadeofglutinousricewrappedinbambooorreedleaves,togreettheupcomingDragonBoatFestivalinforestofZhangjiajieCity,centralChinasHunanProvince,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuYongbing)AwomancleansleavesformakingZongzi,apyramid-shapeddumplingmadeofglutinousricewrappedinbambooorreedleaves,togreettheupcomingDragonBoatFestivalinarivuletofZhangjiajieCity,centralChinasHunanProvince,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuYongbing)Volunteersmakezongzi,apyramid-shapeddumplingmadeofglutinousricewrappedinbambooorreedleaves,fortheelderlypersonsofnofamilytocelebratetheDuanwuFestivalatacommunityinZhenjiangCity,eastChinasJiangsuProvince,June11,2018.(Xinhua/ShiYucheng)

 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阿列佐:耶稣不是那个长胡子的奇男子,是一种毒蘑菇

AbirdrestsonthestemofalotusflowerintheHuangshanscenicareainAnhuiprovinceonJune10,,astemperaturescontinuetorise.(Photo/Asianewsphoto)AbirdrestsonthestemofalotusflowerintheHuangshanscenicareainAnhuiprovinceonJune10,,astemperaturescontinuetorise.(Photo/Asianewsphoto)AbirdrestsonthestemofalotusflowerintheHuangshanscenicareainAnhuiprovinceonJune10,,astemperaturescontinuetorise.(Photo/Asianewsphoto)AbirdrestsonthestemofalotusflowerintheHuangshanscenicareainAnhuiprovinceonJune10,,astemperaturescontinuetorise.(Photo/Asianewsphoto)TwobirdsrestonthestemofalotusflowerintheHuangshanscenicareainAnhuiprovinceonJune10,,astemperaturescontinuetorise.(Photo/Asianewsphoto)


来源:利维坦

耶稣是否真的存在过?历史学家和神学家对此争论不休。《圣经》说,耶稣是处女玛丽亚在伯利恒的马厩里诞下的上帝之子。有人相信历史上的确存在耶稣其人,但他的超能力纯属编造。还有人认为,耶稣的形象拼凑而来。此外,还有人说:耶稣其实是个蘑菇。

文/K. Thor Jensen

译/半打

校对/石炜

原文/omgfacts.com/this-religious-scholar-thought-jesus-was-a-mushroom-ab27d134c1f4

耶稣是否真的存在过?历史学家和神学家对此争论不休。《圣经》说,耶稣是处女玛丽亚在伯利恒的马厩里诞下的上帝之子,当然这是一家之言。有人相信历史上的确存在耶稣其人,但他的超能力纯属编造出来的。还有人认为,耶稣的形象是由不同的历史人物拼凑而来。

此外,还有人说:耶稣其实是个蘑菇。

《神圣蘑菇和十字架》,约翰M. 阿列佐

1970年,英国考古学家约翰M. 阿列佐(John M. Allegro)出版了《神圣蘑菇和十字架》(The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross)一书。他以一个数百年来一直困扰着圣经学者的问题为开端:在翻译原始希伯来语《圣经》时,有些词似乎完全没有意义。通常人们将这些词译作人名,但阿列佐对此有着完全不同的看法。

英国考古学家与死海古卷学家阿列佐

阿列佐绝不是个疯子。他在曼彻斯特大学做研究,并受邀成为《死海古卷》(Dead Sea Scrolls)破译小组的成员。当中大多数人都希望能利用这些经卷推进对基督教的阐释。然而,阿列佐对那些古籍的理解却与其他成员大相径庭。

在翻译完《库珀卷》(Copper Scroll)后,阿列佐开始相信基督的故事实际上是艾塞尼派(Essene,活跃在公元前2世纪到公元1世纪的第二圣殿时期)制造出的一个隐喻,用来掩饰他们活动的真相。这些人是当时一个新晋神秘宗教的倡导者,信奉的是由致幻蘑菇所带来的强力幻觉。

根据阿列佐的诠释,耶稣并非那个留着胡子的神奇男子,而是一种毒蝇伞蘑菇。

毒蝇伞(Amanita muscaria,又称毒蝇鹅膏菌),是一种含神经性毒害的担子菌门真菌

毒蝇伞的学名为Amanita muscaria,是长久以来自然界中最强效的致幻剂之一。这种蘑菇广泛生长于北半球,它能提供强力的蝇蕈素(muscimol)。这是一种能够引起视听幻觉的神经毒素。有意思的是,与其他致幻剂不同,毒蝇伞并不扰乱大脑活动,而是与之同步。这能使人产生一种与宗教经验非常相似的、确凿且清晰的感觉。

阿列佐用词源学方法解开了《圣经》和《死海古卷》中的隐含意义。例如,他推测,“基督教的、基督徒(Christian)”一词来自一个苏美尔语(Sumerian)词根,其意思是“涂满精液(smeared with semen)”。古代的迷幻蘑菇崇拜(mushroom cults)其实就是“粗俗下流”的性活动。阿列佐这本书讲述的正是这种崇拜如何被合理化,并最终经过数个世纪,成为我们今天所知的宗教。

如果你仔细考察阿列佐的逻辑,就会发现他说的不是疯话。以天主教的圣餐仪式为例,你真的能通过吃掉“基督血肉”而信靠上帝吗?显然,食用一小片致幻蘑菇就足以产生相应的幻觉。此外,阿列佐认为法国Plaincourault教堂壁画中所描绘的正是这种毒蝇伞蘑菇。 

Plaincourault教堂壁画,法国

大多数宗教学者被这本《神圣蘑菇和十字架》深深冒犯。有些批评家把这本书看作是阿列佐对一些狭隘基督徒的报复,这些人也曾反对他之前对古籍经卷的翻译。于是,在批评家看来,阿列佐是将整个基督教义看作远古嬉皮士因嗑迷幻蘑菇而产生的愚蠢幻觉。

不幸的是,在这本书中,阿列佐的许多逻辑实在太跳跃了。尽管他是个颇有语言天赋的学者,但他对许多词汇的诠释并未植根于它们在那个时代的真正用法。而且他为了证实自己的论点,似乎有点儿不择手段。

这本书终结了阿列佐的主流职业生涯。霍德&斯托顿出版社(Hodder & Stoughton)为此公开道歉,并悄无声息地使这本书从此在市场上销声匿迹。虽然,阿列佐则坚持宣扬自己的观点,但能接受的读者越来越少。上世纪70年代是可卡因的时代,而嬉皮神秘主义在当时已是明日黄花。

然而,阿列佐的理论看上去并不比《圣经》里的其他东西更荒谬可笑,比如在一条大鱼肚子里活了好几天的约拿、蛙灾,以及会说话的蛇。宗教的核心是寓言,是人们虚构出来、构造社会组织的隐喻。你不妨思考一下,上帝之子化作一株红底白点的蘑菇来到地球,和他变成了一个人来拯救大众,到底哪个说法更奇怪?

[责任编辑:游海洪 PN135]

责任编辑:游海洪 PN135

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